Sunday, May 24, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Two roads diverged in a wood and I took the one less travelled by, and that has made all the differenceÃ¢â¬ (Beginning sentence of The Road not Taken Frost). Robert Frost is the most beloved poet in America and around the world. Many of his famous works in poetry include: Ã¢â¬Å"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Birches,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ (Which the first sentence of this poem is the beginning introit), Ã¢â¬Å"A Boys WillÃ¢â¬ , and many other great works. Many would not know, but Frost was not widely successful until he was thirty-eight years old. What happens to be the most surprising thing about Robert Frost was not only how fast he was known, but how he did it. In this composition it will describe the slow and steady rise of Robert FrostÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Robert and Elinor shared a deep interest in poetry, but their continued education sent Robert to Dartmouth and Elinor to St. Lawrence University.Ã¢â ¬ (Gerber 1) Aggravated with his education at Dartmouth College, Robert left his education straightaway and married his beloved sweetheart in 1985. Twelve years in to the FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage came with great sadness. The first came when Frost yet decided again to leave college, Ã¢â¬Å"upon entering Harvard in 1897Ã¢â¬ ¦ his experience at Harvard affected him more profoundly than that of DartmouthÃ¢â¬ . (Potter 9) The second originated when the FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s lost two of their three children who were both severely ill with the son infected with Cholera and one the daughters with Postpartum infections. Only one of their children was able to survive the diseases. This devastated Robert and Elinor. Not only did the devastation of two of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s death, but also the death of Isabelle Frost, who was the victim of cancer. 1900 was both shocking and prosperous for the FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬Å"Although the first year was darkened by Isabelle FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the Der ry period became a generally happy time for the familyÃ¢â¬ ¦and encouraging.Ã¢â¬ (Potter 10) Three more children were born during the Derry period and Frost enjoyed this very much. Aside from playing and teaching his children poems and religious stories and many other great entities, both Robert and ElinorÃ¢â¬â¢s personal and nuptial relationship matured immensely and was at its paramount. After the death ofShow MoreRelatedBiography of Robert Lee Frost Essay650 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBiography of Robert Lee Frost Biography of Robert Lee Frost A poem begins with a lump in the throat, a home-sickness or a love-sickness. It is a reaching-out toward expression; an effort to find fulfillment. A complete poem is one where an emotion has found its thought and the thought has found the words Robert Lee Frost once said. Robert Frost is widely admired and recognized for his literary works. He was an honored poet of the twentieth century. Frost may have lived a troubling lifeRead MoreRobert Frost s Poem After Apple Picking918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRobert frost was one of the most critically accepted and widely admired American poets in the twentieth century. He was honored for his achievement with multiple Pulitzer Prizes for his work in poetry. He uses vivid detail about nature and has been called a natural poet although, he denies such view. Robert frost work is more of the human condition which are they key aspect being related to being a human. He was so beloved because he understood the key aspect of being related to human an d wrote poetryRead MoreRobert Frost s The Gift Outright 1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRobert Frost Emma Ramsey English 6th Hour December 8, 2012 Ã¢â¬Æ' Robert Frost According to PoetryFoundation.org, Ã¢â¬Å"Robert Frost holds a unique and almost isolated position in American letters.Ã¢â¬ Robert Frost is very popular for his realistic writings of rural life. He was a great poet and was honored frequently during his lifetime. Frost received four Pulitzer Prizes for Poetry and recited his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Gift Outright,Ã¢â¬ at President John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s inauguration in January 1961 which got him nationalRead MoreNature Of A Man By Robert Frost1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir work to be perceived. Robert Frost wrote his work in common folk dialect, unlike many writers of his time. FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s poems Design, Road not taken, and my November guest exemplify his use of diction, imagery, and word choice to show situations in a natural form, which made Frost so popular to so many varied audiences. Robert FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry is in between the lines of modern poetry and 19th century works. In most of his poetry, he uses simple meter and verse. Frost believed that the form of aRead MoreLove and Nature in the Poems of Robert Frost Essay2313 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmade all the difference.Ã¢â¬ (Frost 697) Robert Frost was a unique writer of the 20th century. In his poems Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing Gold Can StayÃ¢â¬ Birches Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Fire and Ice and Mending Wall Robert Frost explores the theme of nature, and the human emotion love. Robert Frost is considered a humanist and is one of the most well-known American poets. Ã¢â¬Å"If the United States ever adopted a national poet, chances are it would be Robert Frost. By the time Frost died in 1963 at the ageRead MoreInfluential Factors Of The Audience s Understanding1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInfluential Factors of the AudienceÃ¢â¬â¢s Understanding Dead Poets Society is a 1989 American drama film that tells the story of an English teacher, Mr. Keating, who inspires his students through his teaching of poetry. The film received critical acclaim, and was a box office success. It won the BAFTA Award for Best Film and CÃ ©sar Award and David di Donatello Award for Best Foreign Film (British Board of Film Classification, 2014). However, people still hold different opinions on it. Viewers haveRead MoreEdward Estlin Cummings Essay example1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Edward Estlin Cummings was an American poet Ã¢â¬â the second most widely read poet in the United States, after Robert Frost Ã¢â¬â born in 1894. He was immensely popular, especially among younger readers for his work; he experimented radically with form, punctuation, spelling and syntax. The majority of his poems turn to the subjects of love, war, and sex, with such simplistic language, abandoning traditional techniques to create new means of poetic expression. Ã¢â¬Å"Somewhere I have never travelledÃ¢â¬ , is a veryRead MoreMany Factors Can Contribute To The Downfall Of A Relationship.1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Many factors can contribute to the downfall of a relationship. In Ã¢â¬Å"Home BurialÃ¢â¬ , a modernist poem by Robert Frost, the death of s child causes said downfall. In Ã¢â¬Å"Your Love is Killing MeÃ¢â¬ by Sharon Van Etten, the cause of the decline in the relationship is unknown. Though similar in the way they depict the downfall of relationships, Ã¢â¬Å"Home BurialÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Your Love is Killing MeÃ¢â¬ differ in their attitudes towards said relationships. Ã¢â¬Å"Your Love is Killing MeÃ¢â¬ by Sharon Van Etten deals with the breakingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Essay1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy EveningÃ¢â¬ is, without a doubt, one of the most famous Ã¢â¬â and probably most misquoted and misunderstand Ã¢â¬â poems by Robert Frost. This poem clearly possesses pastoral elements; a beautiful, tranquil, and picturesque scene is eloquently painted through the careful use of descriptive language. This beautiful scene, however, is contrasted by the dark, elegiac undertones present in the text. Frost makes extensive use of metaphor in the poem to convey his message; while itRead MoreFrost, By Robert Frost1976 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRobert Frost, an indigenous New England poet, is deserving of an ovation for his contributions and magnitude in American Literature. Frost advises his readers to be actively engaged in questioning the world we inhabit (49, Dickstein). In most of FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s work, readers and critics enjoy his choices of theme, likely being the outdoors and his surroundings. By using Ã¢â¬Å"emotions recollected in tranquilityÃ ¢â¬ and his organic and inviolable relationship with his countryside, he celebrates New EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s natural
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The Greek Attitude Towards Women as seen in the Works of Hesiod Hesiod leaves no doubt that the existence of women is on balance a terrible thing for men. Zeus ordered Hephaistos to create women as a punishment for his having been decieved.. Women were to be a poisoned gift for men, which all shall take to their hearts with delight, an evil to love and embrace (WD, 57-59). In the Theogony women are called a great plague because they are ill-suited to PovertyÃ¢â¬â¢s curse, but suited to Plenty (592-93), among other flaws. While Hesiod offers some well-turned phrases in praise of womensÃ¢â¬â¢ good qualities, it is unmistakable that these positive attributes are all put there by Zeus for the sole purpose of making woman an inescapableÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Prometheus is given a (possibly) eternal torment, to be chained to a column and have his liver torn out daily. His brother Epimetheus is given what we may infer is punishment of comparable magnitude: the first woman. In the Works and Days, we learn she is called Pandora, The Gift of Al l. This gift comes with many alluring qualities: she looks like a goddess immortal, having the lovely shape of a virgin, she is taught by Athena weaving, and Aphrodite hasshed on her charm, Ã¢â¬ ¦mak[ing] her an object of painful love and exhausting desire (Theogony, 62-66). She is dressed by Athena in a silver-white gown (575) and adorned by the Graces and our Lady Persuasion with golden necklaces, and crowned by Horai with flowers, as well as an intricately crafted golden crown, which, while a marvel to look at, depicts terrible monsters. And if these charms arenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to lure a man into the clutches of woman, men who do not marry and have progeny are doomed to baneful old age with no one to care for his needs,(604-5) and his collateral heirs will divide his goods. At best, a man manages to get a virtuous wife, one endowed with good sense, throughout his life good and evil will alternate endlessly (606-8). The alternative is a wife who is not any good at all, and so the man will suffer without any respite all his life. Because in addition to womanÃ¢â¬â¢s inherently evil nature, that Hermes put in her mind a dogÃ¢â¬â¢s shamelessness and the deceit ofShow MoreRelatedAnimal Imagery And The Classical Period Essay2365 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesuse of animal imagery in Greek literature initially appears easy to understand as it is one of the simplest types of comparison found in poetry from European tradition. In fact, Western culture seems to encourage us to contrast the human world with that of the animal. This habit makes it easy to assume that no profound meaning can truly be drawn from such a clichÃ ©d analogy. I have not found this to be the case however when analysing the use of animal imagery to describe women in the Classical periodRead Mo reWomen : At The Bottom Of The Grecian Man Pyramid1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWomen: At the Bottom of the Grecian Man-Pyramid Listening and reading a great deal of Greek Mythology I often found myself asking what about the ladies? Well, re-reading these myths and looking past the epic heroes, I at first did not see how Greek mythology certainly undermined women and as a society were very misogynistic. Women were forcefully resting at the bottom of their man-pyramid due to the Greeks patriarchal way of thinking. In the Grecian myths women were pushed down the power hierarchyRead MoreWomen in Greece2882 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesroles and status of women in ancient Greece are hard to asses since there is very little evidence from that period written or illustrated from a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Most literature and art from ancient Greece comes from men, thus making it hard to evaluate exactly what it was like to live has a women in those times. Sarah Pomeroy states in Goddesses, whores, wives and salves: women in classical antiquity the study of women in ancient literature is the study of mens views of wom en and cannot becomeRead MoreThe Gods vs. Man Essay1966 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages significance to the Greeks. It was something they feared and respected. Throughout history men have always wanted to be like the gods. It is something that is seen over and over, mans universal struggle to be like the gods. Is it mans fault that he wants to be like the gods? Or is it the gods fault? The story Oedipus Rex by Sophocles shows that mans arrogance and fallible personality is the cause of this struggle for superiority. The Greeks dealt the most with godsRead MoreHAMLET AND ORESTES10421 Words Ã |Ã 42 PagesTraditional Types By Gilbert Murray, LL.D., D.Litt. Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford Fellow of the Academy New York Oxford University Press American Branch 35 West 32nd Street London : Humphrey Milford THE BRITISH ACADEMY THE ANNUAL SHAKESPEARE LECTURE 1914 Hamlet and Orestes A Study in Traditional Types By Gilbert Murray, LL.D., D.Litt. Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford Fellow of the Academy New York OxfordRead MoreManagement Challenges for the 21st Century.Pdf60639 Words Ã |Ã 243 Pagesmost of the emerging ones (e.g., Korea or Turkey). They can already be identified, discussed, analyzed and prescribed for. Some people, someplace, are already working on them. But so far very few organizations do, and very few executives. Those who do work on these challenges today, and thus prepare themselves and their institutions for the new challenges, will be the leaders and dominate tomorrow. Those who wait until these challenges have indeed become Ã¢â¬Å"hotÃ¢â¬ issues are likely to fall behind, perhaps
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What You Do Not Know About Books for Help Write Ged Essay Samples Might Surprise You Then identify which type of essay you need compose. These forms of errors will impact the essay score only if they're so widespread they hinder the essay's readability. You are certain to find these and several different advantages if you request assistance with essay writing from Edusson! It's hard to pick a service to purchase your essay from. Alternately, you can search for essay topics online. Make an essay will not have any difficulty. If you realize that you are stuck in regards to writing an essay, request somebody's assistance that will help you proceed through writing an essay. Writing an essay at our company is completely stress-free. Books for Help Write Ged Essay Samples for Dummies Explain how you intend to achieve it. The GED asks test-takers to write on a number of subject issue. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theLinguisticsfor Second Language Learning and Teaching. Answer: Part 1 Language is a complex system of sounds and humans generally gain the ability to learn and acquire language at an age of four to six years. However, the learning capability may vary from person to person. Research shows that humans have the capability to learn more at specific periods of their life. At certain stages, the brain learns to gain certain propensities from the environment in which he lives (VanPatten Williams, 2014). For instance, he learns the language of humans and slowly learns how to use it. Humans learn to use and implement language till puberty. In fact, in some cases it has been seen that children learn foreign language more quickly and efficiently than adults (Benson Voller, 2014). Humans learn a language through speech sounds, signs, and symbols. Saussure talks about acquisition of human language. Meaning is attributed to a word. The meaning itself is not contained within it. Sign comprises the linguistic form and the meaning. Both the signifier and the signified are contained within a word (Rock, 2016). When one teaches a child any language, he/she makes him her acquainted with the objects and the meaning contained within it. For instance, a child learns the word cat when he is shown a cat and told that this is a cat. He first sees the expressions that are created on the face of the speaker when the word is pronounced (Ortega, 2009). His understanding of the word cat may differ from the understanding of the speaker. He may take the word cat to be sat. It is pronunciation that is the only physical part of a language and demands programming through neuromuscular activities (Joseph, 2013). A child observes the motor skills in the tongue, lips, throat- precisely the lower face. It is to be noted that all these organs of the body are involved in the production of sound and speech. An individual thus, first learns by seeing, watching, and observing. However, the exact sound produced by the speaker is not always replicated by the listener. The listener may perceive the speech sound completely in a different way. Once a child learns to perceive speech sound, he slowly and gradually learns to associate the meanings attributed to words (Harris, Taylor, 1997) In case of second or foreign language, a person is likely to develop foreign sounding accents when he/ she has learned the first or native language completely. He then learns the second or foreign language in the later period of his life. Compared to adults, children learn languages very quickly and easily. An adult must struggle and toil to learn a new language. However, a child picks up any language out of thin air. For him, it is a part of a play. Children initially communicate using vocalizations and gestures (McGilvray, 2013). It is only through vocalizations and gestures that they make their intents known to others. Children then learn words and their usage. New functions slowly take over the old functions. They learn words and associate the meanings attributed to them. They learn to express their feelings through words which they earlier did through preverbal means. Though the language that humans learn differs from one place to another, the way in which children learn to use a language is universal. Children, with time, acquire the meanings, forms, and uses of utterances and words. In this regard, there are two methods in which the language skill of an individual is developed. There are two approaches for development of syntax. The first is the empiricist approach in which children learn the syntactic rules. The second is the nativist approach in which the principles of syntax are innate. In this approach, the principles are transmitted through genome (Mitchell et al., 2013). The nativist theory was proposed by Naom Comsky. According to him, children are able to learn and acquire a language since they have the innate ability of language acquisition. It is a unique accomplishment of humans. Children have language acquisition device or the LAD (Chomsky, 2014). The LAD is the area of the human brain wherein all the rules of a language are set. The syntactical rules of all languages are stored in the brain of a child. Hence children are able to construct novel words and sentences using their vocabulary. Chomsky claims that it is this innate quality because of which children are able to learn a new language (Moro et al., 2015). Whatever children hear, the external linguistic input is not sufficient to explain their ability to know and learn a language. Naom Chomsky argues that the external input from the environment has limitations and is full of errors. It is thus impossible for a child to learn a language solely from the external environment until and unless he has the innate quality of acquisition. It is because of the language acquisition device that children are able to learn a language wholly and completely despite errors and incomplete information from the external environment (Cohen, 2014). On the other hand, the empiricist theory contrasts Chomskys nativist theory. The empiricist theory suggests that since there is enough information in the external environment and children are able to receive that information properly, they do not need any innate language acquisition device (De, 2014). The existence of an innate device is purely based on assumption. Since external sources are available, there is no need to assume that there exists an innate device and it is only because of this innate device that children are able to learn and acquire a language. Empiricists believe that the brain processes in a human are sufficient for the acquisition of a language. It is of utmost importance that a child is actively engaged with the environment while learning a language (Culler, 1976). The adult or teachers must communicate with the child appropriately that is, he must carry out child directed speech or the CDS. It is through the child directed speech that the children are given the information required to learn a language. According to the statistical language acquisition, children acquire and learn language through perception of patterns (Givn Ranch, 2013). According to the interactionist perspective, children learn language through interaction and communication. Learning a language means creating meaningful ways of communication. It is only through interaction that children are able to learn a language. Language, is, in fact, a mode of communication. It is in the first six years of a human life that a child learns a language. In the first three to twelve months, a baby is merely able to laugh and make cooing sounds. He communicates through symbols and gestures. Children start producing babbling sounds by the age of twelve months (Hoff, 2013). This is followed by jargon phase whereby children start producing unintelligible strings forming a conversation like tone. The babbling sound thus sounds meaningful. In the next twelve to eighteen months, children start uttering words that are rich in meaning. More words are added to the vocabulary and children gain understanding of words and their surrounding environment (de Saussure, 1983). In t he next eighteen months to two years, children start putting the words in their vocabulary together to form meaningful phrases and sentences. In the next three to five years, the child becomes a preschooler and is able to construct longer and more meaningful sentences. He/ she can now put words and sentences together in a variety of ways. Finally, once the child turns six, he/ she begins to understand the working of language. They learn how to use them and are able to find out meanings out of their framed sentences (Hyams, 2012). A child thus first learns to produce sounds by listening and watching others in the environment. It is only after acquisition of speech sounds that a child develops the ability to learn a language. Speech is completely a physical activity controlled by the brain and needs the organs of the lower face such as lips and the vocal cords. Language involves both written and spoken language (Schtze, 2016). Part 2 Teaching English as a second language to the non-native speakers, can in itself be a highly challenging task. The main challenge while teaching English to a non-native English speaker, lies in the fact that a child takes a long time in acquiring the phonemes and speech sounds of the new language. I have a personal experience of teaching English to a 5 year old child, who had been learning English for the first time in the English class. In this part, I intend to discuss as well as critically analyze the language acquisition process of the particular child, as observed by me. The child had been raised by a Chinese couple, and as a result the child had been accustomed to the Chinese language since his childhood. As it is a well-known fact, that any child mostly acquires a new language between 18 months to 4 years, this particular child failed to receive sufficient exposure to English language, during the very early phase of his life. Consequently, the biggest challenge has been to create an organic need for the child to employ the words of the minority language (here English). However, language learning process does not start off very fast. During the very first few weeks, (approximately a period of 2 weeks), the child was acquainted with his native language only, and consequently refused to communicate via the newly learnt English language. This period can be referred to as the silent period, when the child had been more of an observer, trying to observe, and willing to imitate the facial expression, gestures or speech sounds of the teacher. The way I was enunciating common words, such as Book, Ball, or Play, was being observed by the child, who however refused to communicate with me in the foreign language. Once, the silent period has passed, from the third week onwards, the child started enunciating indistinct words, though the sound utterances were not always right. In this stage, although the child have been acquiring new words of English language, he had been hearing n the last couple of weeks, he was unable to form a symbolic association (lantolf et al., 2015). Each word, as even Saussure, had pointed out in his structuralism theory signifies a specific concept that becomes a symbol for the learner, in the language acquisition process. Thus, the picture teaching technique becomes a very fruitful way of teaching new language. The child already had clear acquaintance with the idea of common objects or things, such as play, food, or boy, and hence I used pictures, for each object, to signify the object as well as the concept, it was denoting (Mitchell et al., 2013). The child started forming pictorial association between the objects seen, and the English words signifying the same that helped him remember the words. However, it should be noted that the utterances or the speech sounds of the child were far different from that of the native English students. The English phonemes do not exist in the Chinese language, and more importantly the stress and the intonation patterns of the English language are completely different from those of the Chinese language. The child was unable to distinguish between the pronunciation of ship, and sheep, or full and fool, and he was pronouncing both the words in each set alike. Besides, often when the child was being shown the picture of sheep, he confused it with ship, and wrote the same. Each word in itself stands for, and signifies a specific concept, and in case of a new language learning process, I observed the child got confused between the two similarly spelt and almost similarly pronounced words. I realized that the phoneme video and audio lessons became imperative to solve the problem. During the next stage, although this kind of confusion was not occurring frequently, I observed that the child struggled to comprehend the underlying structure of the language. While he was well-aware of the commonly used inputs of language, the child was unable to understand the rules of word segmentation. The question is how to frame a grammatically correct sentence, or how to absorb the statistical regularities of apparently meaningless acoustic events. I observed that the child had rather shown a fast progress in detecting the probabilities with which one syllable predicts the other. Again, I also observed that the child encountered a huge challenge in assessing the distribution of language elements, and consequently he was not able to understand the significance of grammatical endings ( -s, -ed) or even the function words (to, of ), while constructing a sentence in English. While trying to say, My mom brought me the bag, the students said I brought my mom a bag (Cook, 2013). Thu s, the parsing process, which forms an important part of the language comprehension process, was not developed in the child. However, gradually when I introduced classroom reading sessions and made story-telling sessions a mandate, I was able to solve this problem. Gradually, by engaging in the story-telling and hearing process, the child was finally able to assemble a string of elements among the different inputs of English language. In case I wish to evaluate the teaching method, I would like to appreciate the video and audio method that was being adopted for improving the phoneme and the speech sound of the child. Besides, the video lessons can help in grabbing the attention of a child in a more effective way, and can eliminate his unwillingness or fear of learning a new language. These lessons can easily appeal to the sense of the child, enthuse him to actively participate in the learning process, and can also improve his vocabulary as well (Rost Candlin, 2014). The story-telling sessions, also was a good thing as it helped in fascinating the child, thereby making him a more active and fast learner. However, I feel that I should have also used familiar Chinese images, themes or mythological stories, while explaining concepts or narrating stories in English. Instead of telling him story of Cinderella, I could have used stories of Yeh-Shen, so that the child can easily recognize the inner meaning. Besides, I co uld also have recommended the use of mobile apps to the child, that could help in the effective, faster language learning process. A child developing and acquiring a new language, requires huge effort and time as well as guidance from the teacher and the family. It is not merely about the words, or the grammatical rules, but it is all about learning the new concept and a new framework as a whole. In order to learn a language in an integrated way, the teacher requires focusing on the development of more advanced vocabulary and phrases. The child must not be taught a new language, but must be encouraged and inspired to experiment new words and phrases. In order to prevent the boredom of the learning process, new, fresh and innovative as well as student-friendly techniques of language techniques, should be adopted by the instructor. References Benson, P., Voller, P. (2014).Autonomy and independence in language learning. Routledge. Bygate, M., Swain, M., Skehan, P. (2013).Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing. Routledge. Chomsky, N. (2014).Aspects of the Theory of Syntax(Vol. 11). MIT press. Cohen, A. D. (2014).Strategies in learning and using a second language. Routledge. Cook, V. (2013).Second language learning and language teaching. Routledge. Culler, J. (1976). Saussure. Sussex: The Harvester Press. Chapter 2: Saussures theory of language - pp. 18-52. de Saussure, F. (1983). Course in general linguistics (R. Harris, Trans.). London: Duckworth. Part II, Chapter IV: Linguistic value; Part II Chapter V: Syntagmatic relations and associative relations - pp. 110-125. De, R. (2014).Linguistic theory: The discourse of fundamental works. Routledge.. Givn, T., Ranch, W. C. (2013). On the intellectual roots of functionalism in linguistics.Functional Approaches to Language,248, 9. Harris, R., Taylor, T. J. (1997). Landmarks in linguistic thought I (2nd ed.). London and New York: Routledge. Introduction - pp. xiii-xxi. Hoff, E. (2013).Language development. Cengage Learning. Hyams, N. (2012).Language acquisition and the theory of parameters(Vol. 3). Springer Science Business Media. Joseph, J. E. (Ed.). (2013).Ferdinand de Saussure: Saussure, Structuralism and Post-structuralism. Routledge. Koerner, E. F. (2013).Ferdinand de Saussure: origin and development of his linguistic thought in Western studies of language(Vol. 7). Springer-Verlag. Lantolf, J. P., Thorne, S. L., Poehner, M. E. (2015). Sociocultural theory and second language development.Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction, 207-226. McGilvray, J. (2013).Chomsky: Language, mind and politics. Polity. Mitchell, R., Myles, F., Marsden, E. (2013).Second language learning theories. Routledge. Mitchell, R., Myles, F., Marsden, E. (2013).Second language learning theories. Routledge. Moro, A., Chomsky, N., Caponigro, I., Kane, D. B. (2015).The boundaries of Babel: The brain and the enigma of impossible languages. Mit Press. Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder. - CHAPTER 10: Social dimensions of L2 learning. pp. 216-254. Rock, P. (2016).Making of symbolic interactionism. Springer. Rost, M., Candlin, C. N. (2014).Listening in language learning. Routledge. Schtze, C. T. (2016).The empirical base of linguistics: Grammaticality judgments and linguistic methodology(p. 244). Language Science Press. VanPatten, B., Williams, J. (2014).Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction. Routledge.
Thursday, April 2, 2020
One of the most prominent themes in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã is maturation and grasping with adulthood. In keeping with this tradition, Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland presents a girl who transforms immensely from the bored little girl who canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine reading a book without pictures to the mature adult described at the end of the novel. Throughout much of the novel, the reader witnesses Alice struggling with frequent, rapid changes in her body. While the repeated size changes in the book serve to illustrate the difficulties of children in grasping the changes of puberty, the changes in AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and state of mind that come with each fluctuation in size hint at the greater rewards of knowledge and certainty that accompany AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s maturation. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s first adventure in Wonderland presents the emotional frustration that comes with being so uncertain about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. After noticing a fifteen-inch door and the flourishing garden that lays behind it, Alice expresses a desire to shrink in order to fit through it, a wish that is then fulfilled by her consumption of a drink laying on a nearby table (Carroll 22-3). We will write a custom essay sample on Puberty in Alice and Wonderland or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page From the onset of her time in Wonderland, Alice is concerned by her inability to fit in with her physical surrounding. We see this in her initial reaction to shrinking; sheÃ¢â¬â¢s immediately elated expressing her pleasure at being Ã¢â¬Å"now the right sizeÃ¢â¬ (24). Yet this joy quickly dissolves into apprehension.. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s sudden diminution is accompanied by a strikingly different perspective of her surroundings that creates a more hostile environment. Small and out of place, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s persistent effort to climb up the slippery legs of the glass table brings her to tears. This sudden inability to conquer her surroundings startles Alice and concerns the narrator, who begins to repeat variations on the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"poor AliceÃ¢â¬ (24), causing readers to identify her shrunken state with frustration and dejection. Essentially, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s response to being small in a large world seems to mirror the frustration of those who desire to grow up. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s confusion merely continues after eating the cake she finds under the table (25). From the beginning, she is unsure in which way her body will respond: will she grow larger or smaller? Alice even delays to see how her body will respond to this relatively ordinary event, placing her hand on her head and awaiting the results Ã¢â¬Å"anxiouslyÃ¢â¬ (25). The resultant size change further alarms Alice as she explores her body after growing. With her increase in stature (26), Alice is so disconcerted on how far emoved her head is from her feet that she meditates rather nonsensically on the idea in an effort to grasp the new perspective she has developed. Now too small for surroundings that were formerly too small for her (and even before that, just the right height), Ã¢â¬Å"[p]oor AliceÃ¢â¬ (27) is still in no position to achieve entering the garden. Remarkably, her initial reaction is quite similar: she begins crying hopelesslyÃ¢â¬âbut she quickly admonishes herself, claiming that Ã¢â¬Å"a great girl like [her]Ã¢â¬ (the word Ã¢â¬Å"greatÃ¢â¬ here referring to her new size) has no business crying like the small child that appeared merely two pages before. Despite her remarkable change in size, then, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and views remain unaffected, a fact that leaves her even more frustrated as she continues crying. In other words, Alice knows she is acting inappropriately for her new size, but she still remains unable to seize control of her increasingly volatile emotions. Similar to biological hormone surges, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid changes in growth are accompanied by fierce emotions and mood swings that she is unable to control. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s meditation upon the recent events also provides great insight into how changes in size have affected her mentally. On page 28, the girl confusedly discusses the identity crisis that has befallen her, identifying the puzzling question that these changes have led her to: Ã¢â¬Å"Who in the world am I? Ã¢â¬ As she begins to meditate on whether she may have been changed for another child, we see the depth to which she has been affected. So flustered by these constant changes, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s memory and knowledge have suffered, as she is unable to recall basic facts. This, accompanied by the realization that her voice has become hoarse and strange, once again moves Ã¢â¬Å"poor AliceÃ¢â¬ to tears. Finding both her body and mind to be completely altered, Alice hints towards not liking who she has become, resolving to stay in Wonderland and only come out if she is somebody else. Just as soon as this stream of thoughts leaves her, though, Alice realizes that she has shrunk once again, and rather than being comforted, Alice is Ã¢â¬Å"frightened at the sudden changeÃ¢â¬ (29), saying that she is now Ã¢â¬Å"worse than everÃ¢â¬ and that she Ã¢â¬Å"never was so small as this before. Ã¢â¬ She finds herself confronted by a pool of tears that had once seemed so inconsequential, frustrated once again by her uncontrollable emotions: Ã¢â¬Å"I wish I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t cried so much! (30). Once again, she realizes somewhat bitterly that Ã¢â¬Å"everything is queer to-day. Ã¢â¬ AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s size continues to come into play through her interactions with the mouse. Not used to seeing things from small eyes, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s etiquette is brought into question as she offends the mouse with h er talk of cats (31). Despite being the same size as the normally-small animals she now interacts with, Alice is viewed as foolish for not utilizing the same logic as her counterparts. In essence, while she is physically small, her mind has not adapted to this new size and she does not fit in among small creatures. The animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ simplicity seems incredibly childlike throughout the third chapter, particularly with the childlike arguments and faux pretentiousness that many of the creatures utilize (34). The Caucus-race seems to resemble childlike games that make little sense to observers, and Alice notes this absurdity (36), again showing her inability to fit in with this other world. As her travels continue, however, Alice begins to come to terms with the frequent size changes and shows increased logic in dealing with the unpleasant situations. Upon her foray into the White RabbitÃ¢â¬â¢s house, Alice expresses both a desire to grow and frustration with being Ã¢â¬Å"a tiny little thingÃ¢â¬ (41). While Alice realizes that she will grow upon drinking the bottle, she still does not recognize that her inability to control her growth. She is surprised by the rapidity of the action, and despite her explicit wishes, she continues growing until she is too large for her physical surroundings, her body extending outside of the house. Alice has not yet learned that her changes in size will cause her discomfort and unhappiness, and once again she finds herself hopeless (42). Commenting on her physical size, Alice notes that she is Ã¢â¬Å"grown up nowÃ¢â¬ and pleased that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no room to Ã¢â¬Å"grow up any moreÃ¢â¬ . However a sentence later, she contradicts this thought, worrying that she will Ã¢â¬Å"never get any older,Ã¢â¬ yet comforted by never having to be Ã¢â¬Å"an old womanÃ¢â¬ (42). This contradiction shows the confusion with which Alice views herself: she is not a childnor does she desire to be oneÃ¢â¬âand yet she does not entirely see herself as a woman. In other words, Alice is stuck between stages of her life: while her size suggests maturation, she does not identify herself as a mature adult. This is further evidenced by AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent fear of the White Rabbit (43). Still in the mind-frame of a child, she trembles, neglecting to come to terms with being Ã¢â¬Å"about a thousand times as large as the Rabbit. Ã¢â¬ Yet with her increased size, Alice has become more assertive and more prepared to handle her situation. Wielding her sudden growth as a weapon rather than seeing it as a ulnerability, she scares the Rabbit with her motions in order to fend him off and kicks Bill the lizard as he goes to retrieve her (44). Contrary to her interaction with the mouse, Alice is now adequately prepared to handle smaller creatures: she displays an increased knowledge and a stronger capacity for coping with her situation. More aggressive now, she embraces the physical change, resorting to vocal threats that are backed by the differen ces in size between her and the creatures. Even more remarkable, Alice becomes aware that she can use these size changes to her advantage, responding to the violent attacks of the creatures by shrinking in size (45). Still, after the ordeal, Alice is desperate to reach Ã¢â¬Å"the right sizeÃ¢â¬ , wanting to Ã¢â¬Å"grow up againÃ¢â¬ (47). AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of identity is further underlined in her conversation with the Caterpillar. From the outset of their interaction, Alice explains her identity crisis, explicitly stating, Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand it myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦and being so many different sizes in a day is very confusing. (49) She is remarkably unable to answer the simple question of identity, telling the caterpillar that while she is fully aware who she was when her adventures began, she has changed several times since then. Alice states that her problem is not with the size that she is (an odd contradiction to her previously-stated desire to return to the right size), realizing that she simply doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like changing so often. The Caterpillar responds in scorn, insinuating that Alice is being ridiculous with his standoffish remarks. He appears to be rather knowledgeable throughout their whole conversation, speaking authoritatively on not only her size changes, but her recitation of Ã¢â¬ËYou are old, Father WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢. After their conversation, Alice launches into a similar identity crisis: eating the mushroom causes her body to undergo strange changes where some parts change and others do not (54-55), but after much experimenting, she eventually manages to return to her Ã¢â¬Å"usual height. Ã¢â¬ (56) Alice sums up her recent events by stating that the fundamental problem with her physical changes is that she never knows what sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll be Ã¢â¬Å"from one minute to another. The vast knowledge of the caterpillar provides an odd conundrum when compared with the Mouse from chapter III, whose small size seemed to be associated with the childlike state of mind that he possessed. However the size contrast of Alice and the Caterpillar provides a reasonable explanation: he is larger than her (48: Ã¢â¬Å"a la rge blue caterpillarÃ¢â¬ ), and thus more knowledgeable just as Alice was able to outsmart the Rabbit when she was previously a thousand times its size. This lays the foundations for the idea that relative size appears to indicate knowledge and power in AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland, an idea that is further affirmed by AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s final size change in the book and will signal AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s passing through puberty. During the trial, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s growth accompanies the point at which her logic finally begins to triumph over the nonsense that dominates Wonderland. Alice begins growing rather helplessly during the trial, but her physical change is now accompanied with a more bold and assertive personality (106). As she moves to take the stand, Alice suddenly realizes just how large she has grown, but for the first time in the novel, she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem concerned or disconcerted by her new stature. Alice is marked by her critical attitude towards the trial, assertively answering the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s questions and countering the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s attempted attacks on her with her own logic (112). Alice is also marked by her aggressive attitude towards the Queen; instead of attempting to please her, Alice now cuts her off and demands attention and order rather than nonsense and whim (113, 115). AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest realization occurs as she grows to full size and declares that those who formerly inspired fear are only a pack of cards (116). This is the final change of the novel, and its effects are best summarized by AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s sister at the end of the novel. As she dreams of AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s adventures, she remarks on AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s initial status as Ã¢â¬Å"little AliceÃ¢â¬ with the Ã¢â¬Å"tiny handsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"eager eyesÃ¢â¬ (117). However after her adventures (in the Ã¢â¬Å"after-timeÃ¢â¬ ), she views Alice as a knowledgeable and loving Ã¢â¬Å"grown womanÃ¢â¬ who would reflect fondly on Ã¢â¬Å"her own child-lifeÃ¢â¬ (118). She creates a contrast, identifying Alice apart from the Ã¢â¬Å"simple and loving heartÃ¢â¬ of her childhood. Thus, with her growth in size, Alice has received a wealth of knowledge and finally achieved maturity. On the surface, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland regards AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s physical changes with hostility and apprehension. However upon further examining the mental and emotional changes that accompany them, it becomes clear that the physical changes produce the eventual reward of self-awareness and knowledge that allow Alice to finally triumph over her threatening environment. It is through these changes which Alice achieves the ability to brandish adult logic against the childhood nonsense that governs Wonderland. Thus, Carroll manages to accurately portray the emotional difficulties of maturity by also depicting their eventual reward.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Ginzburg Essays - Art History, Painting, Style, Gottfried Semper Ginzburg Proceeding from the following quote, briefly explain Ginzburgs historical model of stylistic change, referring back to Volliet-le-Duc and Gottfried Semper wherever appropriate. A Flower grows in the field because it cannot help but to grow: thus it cannot contemplate whether or not it is appropriate to the field that existed before it. On the contrary, by its very appearance, the flower transforms the general image of the field Ginzburg talks about the formal development of styles and how the modern architecture is grown from the past but isnt necessarily based on the past. These ideas are very much shared by Semper. This growth is singular and linear, based on a preceding proposition, each out growing the latter, but not continuing the old. a person making use of the achievements in electricity cannot, under any circumstances, be forced to revert to steam power. Gottfried Semper explains this form of thinking very well in that, we learn from the past, we cannot copy it, as this is a waste but rather we cannot turn our backs on this existing knowledge, and previous epochs. The development and changing of styles is a meshed concept. There is no end or beginning of styles. Ginzburg explains the life of a particular style as a growing organism in that it is born, lives out its youth, matures and lives out its old age, but never dies, but rather atrophies. This is why the actual timing of a style is impossible to track, for there is no death of a style, the life of the style atrophies. Styles cannot be erased because they are not physical elements to knocked down and demolished. So when an epoch forms, there is a trace of the old style, a marking, like a child would have of his parents. Each style has a genetic imprint of its parent, history. A flower grows in the field because it cannot help but to grow A flower germinates in the grown and is thus, it is born. This organism grows in its field, no choices, no alternatives, but it still grows. This flower could wither and die, for what difference would it make? But does it know that its individual expression of color and aroma could be the single characteristic that beautifies its surroundings. A style that in its own being, transforms a hideous field into a breathtaking space. This theory of style stands true to the linear growth of architecture. Style will continue to grow and thrive, without its own predetermined plan. Each bit of architecture is born, and lives through maturity. This excerpt is taken from the given quote above. It assesses the revolution Ginzburg prescribing for Russia. Ginzburg talks about how the architects in Russia, like the flower, doesnt have the choice of banishing the historical development of architecture. But that their styles can transform t his field into a flowering spectacle.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
US Immigration History Reading Journal - Essay Example Adams (242) criticizes the exploitation by immigrant parents of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings, and extols the role of public schools as Americanizing agencies: school-going daughters educate their immigrant mothers. The third sociologist (244) depicts the patriarchal immigrant family, in which arranged marriages are the norm, and children automatically assume responsibility for their parents. The the three Italian-American males (246), regret the undermining of traditional parental authority and the American-like freedom granted to immigrant women. The accounts of Swedish-Americans (248) demonstrate the economic and personal freedom gained by immigrant women in the USA. The Mexican ballads (249) echo the earlier Italian chauvinistic protest against liberalization of female behavior. The narrative of a Chinese prostitute (250) shows that, in some cases, female exploitation by ethnic groups continues even after immigration. DinerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay (252) depicts how low marital rates, late marriages, desertion by husbands and prevalent domestic violence, combined with Irish womenÃ¢â¬â¢s long stint in the labor force, effectively raises womenÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and status within the family order. Finally, RuizÃ¢â¬â¢s (262) essay uses oral testimony from Chicano women to show the tension between expected adherence to traditional culture and the attraction of the American way of life. World War 11 brings new employment opportunities and hastens the Americanization of Chicano immigrants. By the judicious choice and mix of primary sources, the author has succeeded in giving a very vivid picture of the life of women in traditional immigrant families and the changes brought about by contact with American society. It is evident that it is the women who served as the most active agents of change and accelerated the assimilation of immigrants into American